SMOKING distemper, the fact is we can not deny anymore. Many diseases have proven to be bad consequences of smoking, either directly or indirectly. Smoking not only harm the smoker, but also for those around him.
SMOKE cigarettes are pollutants for humans and the environment. Cigarette smoke is inhaled the smoke contains gases and particulate components. Particles are released during smoking as much as 5 x 109 pp. Gas component comprises carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen cyanide, ammonia, oxides of nitrogen and hydrocarbons. The particle component consisting of tar, nicotine, benzopiren, phenol, and cadmium.
Impact of lung Smoking can cause changes in the structure and function of airways and lung tissue. In large airways, mucous cells enlarge (hypertrophy) and increased mucus glands many (hyperplasia). In the small airways, mild inflammation due to increased cell constriction and mucus buildup. In lung tissue, an increase in the number of inflammatory cells and damage alveoli.Akibat airway anatomy changes, the smokers will arise changes in lung function with all sorts of clinical symptoms. This became the main basis of the occurrence of chronic pulmonary obstructive disease (PPOM).
It says smoking is the cause of PPOM, including pulmonary emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and asthma.
The relationship between smoking and lung cancer have been investigated in the last decade 4-5. Found a close relationship between cigarette smoking, particularly cigarettes, with the incidence of lung cancer. There is even expressly stated that the cigarettes as the main cause of lung cancer.
Cigarette smoke particles, such as benzopiren, dibenzopiren, and uretan, known as a carcinogen. Tar is also associated with risk of cancer. Compared with non-smokers, the possibility arises of lung cancer in smokers reach 10-30 times more often.
Impact on the heart Many studies have shown the existence of the relationship of smoking with coronary heart disease (CHD). Of 11 million deaths per year in industrialized countries, the WHO reports that more than half (6 million) due to disturbance of blood circulation, in which 2.5 million were coronary heart disease and stroke is 1.5 million. MOH survey in 1986 and 1992, have increased deaths from heart disease of 9.7 per cent (ranked third) to 16 percent (first rank).
Smoking is a major factor in causing cardiovascular disease is. Not only cause of coronary heart disease, smoking is bad for the brain blood vessels and peripheral.
The exhaled smoke of smokers smoke can be divided into primary (main stream smoke) and smoke the side (side stream smoke). The main smoke is tobacco smoke is inhaled directly by smokers, whereas the addition of smoke is tobacco smoke spread into the atmosphere, which would be inhaled by another person or passive smokers.
4000 species have been found chemicals in cigarettes, with 40 species of them are carcinogenic (can cause cancer), in which toxic substances are found in more?
Besides the smoke, such as carbon monoxide (CO) 5 times more common in addition to smoke than primary smoke, benzopiren 3 times, and ammonia 50 times. These materials can last for several hours in a room after smoking stops.
Generally the focus of research directed at nicotine and CO roles. Both these materials, in addition to increased oxygen demand, also disrupt the oxygen supply to the heart muscle (myocardial) infarction job detriment.
Nicotine interfere with the sympathetic nervous system due to increased myocardial oxygen demand. Besides smoking causes addiction, nicotine also stimulates the release of adrenaline, increased frequency of heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac oxygen demand, and cause heart rhythm disturbances. Nicotine also affect the nerves, brain, and many other body parts.
Nicotine activates platelets by platelet adhesion due to the emergence of (clotting) into the blood vessel wall.
Desaturasi cause carbon monoxide hemoglobin, reducing the oxygen supply directly to the entire body, including tissue infarction. CO replaces the oxygen in hemoglobin, disrupt the release of oxygen, and accelerate atherosclerosis (Calcification / thickening of the walls of blood vessels). Thus, reducing CO physical exercise capacity, increased blood viscosity, which makes blood clotting.
Nicotine, CO, and other substances in cigarette smoke damage the endothelial proven (in the blood vessel wall), and facilitate the emergence of blood clotting. In addition, cigarette smoke affects the fat profile. Compared with non-smokers, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride blood smokers is higher, whereas HDL cholesterol is lower.