January 1966: Tritura
Indonesia entered Indonesia in January 1966 was not yet recovered from various injuries. The impact of events September 30th Movement of 1965 (G 30 S 1965) was still to be prolonged trauma for the Indonesian nation. Various demonstrations that occurred intensely in the last months of 1965 to be one indicator of public dissatisfaction against the various measures taken by governments, particularly in resolving the political crisis caused G 30 S 1965. Unfinished political crisis, the government on 22 November 1965 exacerbated the economic crisis by raising the price of gasoline from Rp. 4 per liter to Rp. 250 per liter. As a result, the price of basic commodities and public transport fares have increased. Immediate cost of living index jumped sharply from 22,651 before the month of November to late December, 36,347.
Under these conditions, entering the end of 1965, Indonesia was undergoing a variety of injuries, both politically and hurt economic injury. Have not had these wounds healed, on January 3, 1966 the government gave the new year presents a series of rising fuel prices. The price of gasoline had just raised in November 1965 again experienced a fantastic increase from Rp. 250 per liter to Rp. 1000 per liter. Kerosene, which became the livelihoods of the people of Indonesia, will also be increased very significantly, more than 100% or from Rp. 150 per liter to Rp. 400 per liter. This fuel price hike soon followed rising prices of basic commodities and transport fares. Rate buses, trains, and aircraft up to 500%, postal and telecommunication rates rose tenfold hinga.
Increase in fuel and other necessities price that clearly are more miserable people immediately invite a strong reaction from various parties, especially the students, who since the outbreak of the event G 30 S 1965 appears to be the moral force of the Indonesian people. The students belonging to the Indonesian Student Action Union (WE), which was formed on October 25, 1965, then issued demands to the government to review the variety of these price increases. In addition, a seminar to discuss issues of Economics of Indonesia’s economy is also immediately held U.S. on January 10, 1966, held at the University of Indonesia. The keynote speakers, including General AH Nasution, Lt. Gen. Suharto, Sjarif Thajeb, Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX, Adam Malik, and Subchan Zaenuri Echsan.
Departed from the ideas that emerged in the seminar, U.S., with the full support of the armed forces, succeeded in formulating the three basic demands to the government. Three basic demands better known as the Tri People’s Demands (Tritura), in which demands the dissolution of the PKI, a Cabinet reshuffle demand, and demand reduction in the prices of basic commodities daily. Of the three chapters Tritura, the first two counts of actually an “old product” because it had previously voiced Pengganyangan Action September 30 Movement (KAP-Gestapu) since October 1965, while a final demand is a “new product”. However, the existence of the third claim in the most Tritura has strategic value because of direct contact with many people’s interests.
WE Tritura success in formulating further developments could really be a symbol of the struggle with all the strength of students. Therefore, not surprising since the birth of Tritura, the actions of the student demonstrations grew into larger and more intense. Demonstrations are also held by students become more meaningful with the full support of the people and the “umbrella” of the armed forces. Tritura actions that students have consistently fought for since the beginning of January 1966 in the end proved to be a kind of password for fundamental political changes in ground water along the mid-1960s, including the national leadership succession from Sukarno to Suharto.
January 2003: History Repeat
Learning history does not mean merely learning to memorize historical events but, more important than it is to learn to take lessons or lessons (ibroh) of the historical events that have occurred. In this regard, the Latin proverb which reads magistra vitae historia, history is the teacher of life, we should be able to try to ensure the wealth of this nation, especially those who are in a strategic position as policy makers who will contact with the public interest. Events in January 1966 clearly provides a lesson about how the impact occurred and the risk that must be faced if a public policy is not enforced at the place and the right time. Policies which price increases may actually be intended for the good of the people was rejected by the people themselves, and even then turned into a boomerang for the government in power. Government response was not appropriate, even likely stubborn, in addressing the various reactions that emerged after the January 1966 Gift discharge can be considered as one of the important causes hardening of the various reactions that grow in the community and the emergence of anarchic behavior.
Events in January 2003 a number of shows similarities with the events of January 1966. A public policy that is unpopular government taken in the middle of the political and economic situation of the people who are still full of wounds. People are not able to rise from the economic slump after the fall of Suharto again be confronted with new problems that are burdensome, the increase in fuel and other needs. As a result, a strong reaction also came from many quarters. Demands that the government review the price increases are directly initiated by various parties, especially the students through demonstration actions, either held in Jakarta and outside Jakarta. However, so far the government was still determined to defend his decision on the grounds that the increase has been approved by Parliament.
On the other hand, in the midst of the economic situation of the people who increasingly concerned, a far different scene from the consciousness of the sense of crisis in a very demonstrative disclosed by officials of the republic, both those who are in the executive and legislative. At the same time, people’s sense of justice was felt even more disturbed when on the one hand, government can act decisively to reduce fuel subsidies in order not to burden the state budget but on the other hand the government as powerless in the face of the blade, the amount of state money hundreds of trillions of rupiah. By not ignoring the people’s sense of justice, the government actually give forgiveness to the conglomerates pengemplang debt. In fact, if the government can act firmly against the black conglomerates may be the burden of people’s lives can be significantly reduced. Is it all is a deliberate action to provoke the anger of the people or is there a particular scenario held true center of the political elite of this country?
Whatever the answer from it all, when was the political elite increasingly distanced himself from his people’s conscience, the less concerned with the suffering of his people, so it’s not possible the sequence of events that accompanied the January 1966 Gift will happen again in our homeland. Therefore, the messages came from all walks of post-discharge Gift January 2003 should really be able to arrest with a wise and prudent by the government. Inaccuracies in the government’s answer (response) of the challenges (challenge) that appear after discharge Gift January 2003 could be a boomerang that will be very dangerous, as it has ever occurred in 1966. This nation must have been hoping that what happened on four previous presidents, who must be discharged in the middle of the road or having an abnormal leadership succession, does not occur on the fifth president this time. Let this nation has a sweet note in its history, a national leadership succession that took place normally.